Mikhail Bakhtin, “Discourse in the Novel” and “The Problem of Speech Genres”

"Discourse in the Novel" (1934-35) This essay centers on the concept of heteroglossia in addressing the problem of language as it's used in the prose of fiction. Addressing the limitations of both formalism and ideological approaches to literature, Bakhtin responds to an overemphasis on "stylistics," which "is concerned not with living discourse but with a... Continue Reading →


Clark & Halloran, Oratorical Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Transformations in the Theory and Practice of Rhetoric

Clark & Halloran: "Introduction: Transformations of Public Discourse in Nineteenth-Century America" Early in the nineteenth century, college-level education in America was marked by the oratorical culture that directed what students learned and why. As such, the liberal-arts curriculum included oral exercises, and extracurricular activities such as "literary and debate society and...literary magazines" (1). The emphasis... Continue Reading →

Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands/La Frontera (1987)

Chapter 1: The Homeland, Aztlán; El otro México Anzaldúa's concept of borderlands connotes a literal, geographic and a mental, emotional space--there is, for her, a third, hybridized space [a liminal space, the interstices] where those who are non-normative. She focuses primarily on those who resist gender conventions and defy ethnic expectations, looking at women and... Continue Reading →

Lloyd Bitzer, “The Rhetorical Situation” (1966), Richard Vatz, “The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation” (1973), and Scott Consigny, “Rhetoric and Its Situations” (1974)

Bitzer According to Bitzer, not all situations are rhetorical. Rhetorical language does indicate the presence of a rhetorical situation, but he asserts that the situation is not only rhetorical when rhetorical speech is present--a rhetorical situation might exist but die if no orator addresses it. As well, rhetorical language does not call a situation into... Continue Reading →

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